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4.6L Electronic Fuel Injection
When the 4.6-liter engine made its debut in the Crown Victoria sedan, it arrived with the Ford EEC-
IV electronic fuel injection (EFI) system. The EEC-IV EFI processor receives inputs from various
sensors, like air temperature, crankshaft position, and air flow, and provides outputs to create
ignition and fuel injection at the correct time, in the correct quantity. Engineers program the fuel
and spark maps, and a substantial amount of development time goes into each model-year’s
calibration. When we begin modifying engines, the production computer sensors and the original
program can manage some of the changes in the engines, and other changes fall outside the
parameters of the stock components. We will discuss the changes required to complement the
mechanical changes inside the engine.
The EEC-IV EFI was used on the ‘92-‘95 Crown Victoria and the ‘93-‘98 Mark 8. The mass air meter
supplies the computer information regarding the volume of air the engine is consuming, and the
crankshaft sensor provides information on the engine speed. A camshaft sensor lets the computer
know whether a given cylinder is on the intake or the exhaust stroke. Air and water temperature
sensors, along with exhaust gas oxygen sensors, provide input required to tailor the fuel curve.
Armed with this information, the EEC-IV processor is capable of pulsing the fuel injectors, adjusting
the ignition advance, and operating emissions devices, like exhaust gas recirculation. As
performance enthusiasts, our objectives are to obtain the best overall performance, without
sacrificing drivability. The spark and fuel maps in the original programming can be revised to
optimize the calibration for the new engine parameters. Aftermarket chip providers such as
Superchips and DiabloSport can custom burn programs for most applications. Most chip companies
have a large database of computer calibrations, and they can provide a specific program to
complement your needs. A written list of all the modifications to the vehicle and the type of fuel
used is generally required for a custom chip to be programmed.
Ford EEC-V
Ford changed over to the EEC-V EFI in 1996. It is used in the Mustang 4.6, the Crown Vic, Mark 8,
and in 1997 in the F-150 trucks. The EEC-V system includes all the basics of the EEC-IV, plus
OBD2 capability. OBD2 is a federally mandated onboard diagnostic system, designed to inform the
driver when key components of the EEC-V system are not functioning within specification. These
components could cause emissions to fall outside acceptable limits, and therefore, the feds want to
ensure timely repair of any failed components. The OBD2 capability made modifying the cars a bit
more challenging, as modifications now needed to stay within the boundaries of the OBD2 system
checks, or check engine lights would turn on. It did not take long and a new breed of savvy tuner
was born, adapting to changes in the automotive scene like many before. What does all this mean
for you, a person who just wants to make their car faster and better than the original?
Ford EEC V Computer
Ford EEC-V computer has a 104-pin
connector. The older EEC-IV
computers used a 60-pin connector.
The 4-digit catch code, in this case
ZMR3, denotes the application and
version of the computer. Any shop
burning a custom chip will ask for this
catch code before producing a custom
Exhaust modifications are still acceptable, but removing the catalytic converters will turn on the
check engine light. I cannot recommend that you remove catalytic converters, as they do clean the
emissions up a great deal. High-flow catalysts are available if improved flow is required. Long-tube
headers should not affect OBD2, but sometimes the oxygen sensors get placed too far away from
the exhaust port with their location on long-tube headers. Improved response will occur if you move
the oxygen sensor from the collector of a long-tube header closer to the cylinder head. Even if the
sensor is only in a single cylinder’s primary tube, the performance will be better than if it is too far
away in the collector.

Mass air sensors can cause all sorts of problems on the EEC-V system. While some aftermarket
mass air sensors can add a bit of power, most do so by actually leaning the air-fuel mixture some,
not by flowing more air. The manufacturers run their engines very rich (10:1) at wide open throttle
for a number of reasons, like cooling the catalysts. Leaning the mixture out at wide open throttle will
make more power, and that is why many aftermarket mass air meters make more power. Adjusting
the mixture to an optimum air to fuel ratio is an excellent idea, but this can be achieved with a
computer chip, or a product like the MAFterburner from Zone 5 Products, without the downside of
an aftermarket meter. Aftermarket air meters often turn check engine lights on, because of the
sensitivity of the OBD2 system to the air meter inputs.
2003 Ford Lightning 90 mm Mass Air Flow Sensor
This Ford mass air sensor is a 90-mm
unit from an ‘03 Lightning. The
modular engine comes with a variety of
different diameter mass air sensors
depending on the application. The
Ford mass air sensors are the most
reliable and consistent air meter
available for performance engines.
The original Ford meters never give problems, and if we need a bigger meter with more range, we
can simply change to a Ford meter with larger capacity. Often, we have seen an aftermarket mass
air meter fail, and cause drivability problems, or worse, engine damage. So, add a high-flow filter
element like a K&N, a cold-air induction system if available, and tune the air and fuel to the optimum
level, but stay with Ford mass air meters. With the Ford EEC-IV and EEC-V system, should the
airflow increase above the maximum capability of the air meter, the computer is unable to add
additional fuel, because the increased flow is above the input range of the computer. Should the
mass air meter reach 5 volts output to the computer, the meter is saturated, and cannot accurately
measure any additional airflow.

The range of the meter is tied to the injector size of the original car, and the airflow capability of the
engine as supplied by Ford. For our pursuits, the 2-valve 4.6 installed in the Crown Vic, F-150, and
Mustang GT came with 19-lb/hr injectors. The 4.6-liter 4-valve engine as installed in the Mustang
Cobra (‘96-‘01) and Mark 8 came with 24-lb/hr injectors. The ‘03 Cobra has 39-lb/hr injectors, and
the Lightning F-150 comes with 42-lb/hr injectors. On many supercharged cars, we switch the meter
to a Lightning meter, install 42 lb/hr injectors, and fine tune the combination with a MAFterburner.
The Lightning meter and 42 lb/hr injectors will support in excess of 600 hp. If you are working on a
Crown Vic or a GT, the ‘96-‘01 Cobra mass air meter and 42 lb injectors will support 400
horsepower in an naturally aspirated (NA) application, and more with an FMU (fuel management
unit) in a supercharged situation. The FMU raises the fuel pressure in relation to intake manifold
pressure. Although there are other combinations, these two packages will cover 90% of the
requirements most people might have. The other 10% probably need to look at a stand-alone,
programmable EFI system.
Aftermarket EFI Systems
Even with computer chips, larger injectors and bigger air meters, there are times where the
requirements of an engine package could better be served with an aftermarket EFI system. Most of
the systems we will discuss can be easily tuned to achieve excellent power, fuel mileage, and
throttle response. Many offer data logging, so we can see what is going on with the engine,
particularly if it is being used for racing. The flexibility of these systems is something that cannot be
matched by a factory EFI system that was not designed to be easily changed.
Computer chip for EEC V PCM
An aftermarket computer
chip will overwrite the
factory program. This
allows optimization of fuel
and spark maps for unique
engine combinations.
In the beginning, the Electromotive Tec2 system was one of the very few aftermarket systems that
would work with the 4.6-liter engine. This system requires a 60-tooth trigger wheel to operate the
crank trigger, rather than the production 36-tooth wheel. Fortunately Accufab in Ontario, California,
makes a 60-tooth trigger wheel for just this application. The Tec2 contains both the ignition system,
complete with coils, and the fuel-injection drivers. The ignition will power 35 lbs of boost to 10,000
rpm, without relying on a capacitive-discharge (CD) ignition box.
The software is different in layout and application than most, but it does work pretty well once you
are used to it. The biggest drawback was not enough resolution, (cell count too coarse), and the
inability to go into the computer and pull out the installed program, unlike every other system on the
market. Still, for under $1900 complete, this answered a lot of challenges. Unfortunately, this
system is no longer in production. It has been superceded by the Tec3 system, which does offer full
sequential fuel injection versus the batch fire of the Tec2, but the new Tec3 is not is not as
compact, and at the time of this writing, still had teething problems.
Electromotive Tec2 Coil Pack
The Electromotive Tec2
computer was the first
aftermarket EFI computer to
be used for many drag race
engines. The Tec2 requires
the use of a 60-tooth
trigger wheel, instead of the
production 36-tooth design.
This batch-fire EFI system
is simple but does the job.
The FAST system used to be marketed by Speed Pro, and is now part of the Comp Cams family of
products. The FAST system is used by many drag racers, so there is a good body of knowledge
available to help tune this system. With the 4.6, it relies on the factory EDIS (electronic
distributorless ignition system) module to distribute the spark, and this has limited RPM capability to
8000 rpm. An MSD type CD ignition is required to fire highly boosted engines. Data-logging
software allows quick, on-the-fly tuning. This system offers full sequential ignition and fuel injection
capability. This is a competent system with full features for $2500 complete.

This is one of the newest systems available, but it is brought to market by a company who has
offered fuel-injection systems for many years. The DFI Gen 7 offers many OEM-like capabilities.
The system has a sophisticated intake-manifold temperature model that uses an intake-manifold
surface temperature input to predict the amount of fuel that will condense or evaporate on the
surface of the manifold, depending on temperature. The base program is determined through a
battery of questions the tuner answers, and the modeling then provided by the software is
remarkably accurate. It has the ability to make even a novice tuner produce very capable
programming. Another feature that I like is the system’s ability to start in batch fire, then switch over
seamlessly to full sequential mode, just like a factory EFI system. In fact, this system offers more
OEM-type features than any other I can think of. Tech support is also good, because ACCEL has a
network of factory trained EMIC installation centers located throughout North America. ACCEL also
provides a complete range of injectors, sensors, and installation hardware to complement most any
custom installation.
Engine Sensors for an Aftermarket EFI Control System
Most aftermarket EFI systems use GM
sensors. The air charge temperature
sensor is on the left, the coolant
temperature sensor is in the middle,
and the map sensor is on the right.
The GM map sensors are available in
1,2, and 3-bar calibrations to suit both
naturally-aspirated and
forced-induction engines.
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This has been a sample page from

How to Build Max Performance 4.6 Liter Ford Engines How To Build Max Performance 4.6 Liter
Ford Engines
by Sean Hyland
This revised edition features new and current
information throughout the text, an additional 16 pages,
and all black and white photography.
When the ’96 Mustang came out with the 4.6-liter V-8, some
performance enthusiasts were scared away by its technology. But
those days are long gone. Ford added horsepower and torque to
its 2- and 4-valve V-8s over the years, and the number and
quality of available aftermarket performance parts has exploded.
Ford took things to the next level with the new 3-valve Mustang
GT engine and the 5.4-liter GT and Shelby GT500, adding even
more high-performance options.

In this updated edition of How To Build Max-Performance 4.6-Liter
Ford Engines, Sean Hyland gives you a comprehensive guide to
building and modifying Ford’s 2-, 3-, and 4-valve 4.6- and 5.4-liter
engines. You will learn everything from block selection and
crankshaft prep, to cylinder head and intake manifold
modifications. He also outlines eight recommended power
packages and provides you with a step-by-step buildup of a
naturally aspirated 405-horsepower Cobra engine. This is the
definitive guide to getting the most from your 4.6- and 5.4-liter

Temporarily Out of Stock - More On their way!

Click below to view sample
pages from each chapter.
Chap. 1 - Engine Block
Chap. 2 - Crankshafts
Chap. 3 - Rods
Chap. 4 - 4.6 Pistons
Chap. 5 - Cylinder Heads
Chap. 6 - Int. Manifolds
Chap. 7 - Fuel Injection
Chap. 8 - 4.6 Camshafts
Chap. 9 - 4.6 Exhaust
Chap. 10 - Ignition
Chap. 11 - Lubrication
Chap. 12 - Cooling
Chap. 13 - Power Adders
Chap. 14 - Packages
Chap. 15 - 405HP Engine
8-1/2 x 11
44 pages
445 B/W Photos
Item #SA82P
Price: $22.95
Click here to buy now!
This is a great book that any modular engine owner or enthusiast will enjoy!

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