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Ford Engine Firing Orders
Ford Engine Firing

Modifying Small Block Ford Cylinder Heads
Modifying Small
Block Ford Cylinder

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Small Block Rotating Assembly
There is no magic involved in putting a strong bottom end together for your small-block Ford. The
221, 260 and 289ci engines all share the same crankshaft and connecting rods, resulting in a
2.87-inch stroke. Because the 221, 260 and 289 have 3.50-, 3.80- and 4.00-inch cylinder bores
respectively, piston sizes are relative to displacement.

When the small-block Ford evolved to a 4.00-inch bore, increases in displacement from then on
were found with increases in stroke. The 302ci small-block achieved its displacement via revised
pistons, rods and crank. All three are different and are not interchangeable with the 221, 260 and
289. The 351W engine meets its displacement objective by increasing the block deck height and
corresponding stroke. The Boss 302 engine differs from the standard 302 significantly in that it
utilizes a forged steel crankshaft, 289 High Performance style connecting rods and forged pistons.
The 289 High Performance rod and Boss 302 rod interchange without any modifications because
they are basically the same rod. The Boss 302 rod is the same basic C3AE rod forging as the 289.
However, rod bolts are spot-faced 3/8-inch bolts. There is also an available Trans-Am rod with
cap-screw bolts for the Boss 302 engine.
The 351C, 351M and 400M engines, distant cousins of the small-block series of engines, employ
different crankshafts, connecting rods and pistons. While the 351C, 351M and 400M are all of the
335-series engine family, they differ significantly internally. The 351C has a different crankshaft,
connecting rod and piston than the 351M and 400M because the M-series engines have a taller
block deck than the 351C, even though bore and stroke are the same.

Ford utilized surprisingly few crankshaft types in small-block engines. The 221, 260 and 289ci
engines all used the same cast iron crankshaft, making this crank widely available. While it might be
easy to assume that the 289 High Performance engine had the same type of forged steel
crankshaft also incorporated in the Boss 302 engine to come years later, exactly the opposite is
true. The 289 High Performance engine used the same cast iron crank as the 289-2V and 4V
engines - with the only exception being that it was Brinell tested for toughness and was supported
with heavier main bearing caps. It was not a high-nodular iron crank, but simply the best of the
standard nodular iron lot.
The standard 221, 260 and 289 crank is identified by observing a “1M” casting number on the
forward most counterweight. The 289 High Performance crankshaft is also identified by the same
“1M” casting number, sometimes with a letter “K” or a Brinell test mark stamped nearby.
Dimensionally, the 289 High Performance crankshaft is exactly the same as the standard crank.
Care must be exercised in this regard because it is easy to fake a 289 High Performance
crankshaft by simply adding the “K” or Brinell test mark to a standard crankshaft.
Ford Crankshaft Identification Casting Marks
All 221/260/289/302/351W
crankshafts have a marking
like this for identification.
This is a "2M" 302 crank.
The 221/260/289 engines
are "1M". The 351W is a
"3M" crank.
The 302’s cast iron crankshaft is identified with a “2M” in the forward most counterweight. This
crank is not interchangeable with the 221, 260 and 289.
221/260/289/302/351W/Boss 302 Crankshaft Identification Chart
Ford 351C Crankshaft
The 351W cast iron crankshaft is easy to identify by observing the “3M” on the forward most
counterweight. A forged steel crankshaft was never available from the factory for the 351W.

Boss 302
The Boss 302 engine’s crankshaft is a forged steel unit specific to this engine only. This crank is
identified with a D0ZE-A and 7FE-8 in the forward most counterweight. These cranks were cross-
drilled in 1969 only.

One thing the 351C, 351M and 400M have is common is the use of a cast iron crankshaft in all
applications. Standard 351C cranks are marked “4M” and have 3.50-inch stroke. Boss 351 (1971)
and 351 High Output (1972) cranks are marked “4MA” and are Brinell tested. A 351M can be
stroked to 400ci with the installation of a 400M crank.
This is the 351C
cast iron crankshaft
marked "4MA"
(arrow) as shown.
Ford Motorsport SVO CRankshafts
Fortunately, the performance enthusiast isn’t limited to the factory pieces of yesterday. Today, Ford
Motorsport SVO offers a wealth of high-performance crankshafts designed for street and racing
applications alike. All 302/351W Ford Motorsport SVO crankshafts are machined from SVO M-6301-
B351 AMS 6415 raw steel forgings. These SVO cranks feature high-speed oiling systems, precision-
ground rod and main journals, and large fillet radii. Some 351W cranks have knife-edged
counterweights and pin-lightening holes. The journals are polished and nitrate hardened. This
reduces friction and heat. What’s more, the 351W journals are finished to accept 0.940" wide steel
connecting rods. Look to Ford Motorsport SVO for exciting crankshaft options.

If your objective includes increasing displacement, Ford Motorsport SVO offers a variety of stroker
cranks which will bring a wealth of torque to your project in short order. The M-6303-A340
crankshaft will bump the displacement of a 302 up to nearly 340ci. Stroke your 351W to 454ci with
an M-6303-A454 steel stroker crank.

If you’re building a 351C engine, you can order the M-19009-A341 crankshaft spacer required
whenever an SVO crankshaft is installed in this engine. This enables you to stroke the 351C to a
maximum of 454ci, a very healthy increase in stroke for the solid and certainly potent Cleveland
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This has been a sample page from

High Performance Ford Engine Parts Interchange High Performance Ford Engine
Parts Interchange
by George Reid
First-ever book about Ford parts interchange
the entire range of Ford engines from
221-CID to 460-CID
This is one of the best books ever written about Ford engines.
Covering both big- and small-block Ford V-8 engines, this
first-ever book on the subject provides indispensable information
to the Ford enthusiast. Included are high performance factory
parts, interchangeability between Ford Windsor and Cleveland
engines, extensive coverage of the 302 and 351 series as well as
352, 390, 406, 427, 428, 429, and 460 big block engines,
factory casting numbers, etc. Read the sample pages from each
chapter to learn more!
Click below to view sample
pages from each chapter
"If you are trying to mix and match cranks and rods, this book
will tell you if it can be done. If you are trying to find the correct
casting number for a Boss 429 distributor, this book will have it
listed. What we really find appealing about the book is that, not
only is it a perfect resource for those interested in factory
correct restorations, but it is equally as useful for the
performance oriented engine builder. Each chapter points out
building tips, such as how to improve a Cleveland's oiling
system, or what heads will yield the best horsepower gains. As
with all SA Design books, this one is filled with pages of detailed
photographs and diagrams. This book will prove to be a
priceless resource, as many of the original Ford V-8 parts
become harder and harder to come by."
webmagazine, February, 2000

Currently Unavailable

Small Block Fords
Chap. 1 - Small Block Ford
Chap. 2 - Cylinder Block
Chap. 3 - Crankshaft & Rods
Chap. 4 - Oiling System
Chap. 5 - Cylinder  Heads
Chap. 6 - Intake System
Chap. 7 - Ignition System
Chap. 8 - Exhaust Manifolds
Chap. 9 - Cooling System
Big Block Fords
Chap. 10 - Big Blocks
Chap. 11- Cylinder Block
Chap. 12 - Crankshaft & Rods
Chap. 13 - Oiling System
Chap. 14 - Cylinder Head
Chap. 15 - Intake System
Chap. 16 - Ignition System
Chap. 17 - Exhaust Manifolds
Chap. 18 - Cooling System
All Ford Engines
Chap. 19 - Gaskets  
Chap. 20 -
Engine Math  
8-3/8 X 10-7/8
160 Pages
417 Color Photos
Item # SA56
Price: $
Click here to buy now!
This is a great book that any Ford engine enthusiast or
engine builder is sure to love!

Other items you might be interested in

How to Build Big-Inch Ford Small Blocks
By increasing the bore and stroke of your current
engine, you can add those cubic inches without the
hassle of switching to a big block. George Reid
thoroughly explains the building of a small block Ford
stroker, paying special attention to the effect that
increasing the bore and stroke have on the engine as a
whole. Also included is a complete guide to factory head
and block castings, as well as aftermarket block and
head guides, so you can choose exactly the right parts
for your project.
How to Build Big-Inch Ford Small Blocks
$ 22.95

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